Movement of the population from one place to another is simply known as migration. Broadly it can be divided into two major classifications as – 1) Immigration – migrated into a country as a permanent resident and 2) Emigration – means out-migration from one country to settle in other country. Nepalis who are residing in Manipur (India) is considered as in-migrant population and they will be treated as out-migrants in Nepal.
When a person is enumerated in Census as a different place other than her/his place of birth, she/he is considered a migrant. To capture such movements of population, census collects information on migration by last residence and duration of residence as well. Migration arises out of various social, economic or political reasons. Migration may be due to marriage, which is the most common among the females or works as generally among the males.
In the early period, migration took place either in the form of war captives or war prisoners in Manipur. For instances, in 1606 A.D. king Khagemba of Mani-pur fought with Cachar rulers and imprisoned about 1000 Muslim sepoys and finally they settled in the kingdom. The invasion of Khagemba against China and Awa kingdom of Burma in 1630 A.D. also brought in many war captives to the kingdom. King Khagemba raided Takhel (Tripura) and brought in about 200 captives during 1633-34 A.D. (Singh, L.I. & Singh, N.K., 2005). In other instances of the history, many Manipuris numbering about 30,000 populations were carried out by the Burmese (Myanmarese) troops during Seven Years Devastation (1819-1825 A.D.) as war captives (Singh, L.J., 1995). It is stated that such migration type may be known as forced migration.
Objectives: Nowadays, the Census of India reports are extensively used in many fields. The Census of India 2001 has collected 33-information/data based on census houses, households and their family assets in the house-listing operation during 5th May to 4th June, 2000 and 24 questions for about 40 information/data dealing with individual particulars in the population enumeration which was conducted between February 9-28, 2001 (both days inclusive).
The collected information/data is published mostly in table format with or without the analytical notes. Some maps and charts are also incorporated supplementing the data presentation in the publication. Most of our general public are not well versed/aware about the census’ technical term/word which is framed in the table/annexure for which the present study attempted to highlight the Census 2001 results particularly on migration to a much larger audience than present available in the publications.
Some of the definition belonging to technical term(s)/word(s) used at the present study are highlighted as follows:
Migrant and Migration – Migrant means person to involve and migration means to process it or calculation. A migration is defined as a move from one migration defining area to another that was made during a given migration interval and that involved a change of residence. Area of Origin – For migration, the area (or place) from which a move is made is the area of origin. Area of destination (arrival)- For migration, the area (or place) in which a move terminates is the area of destination. Immobile – People, who are seen living their entire lifetime in the same village/town in which they were born, are defined as immobile or non-migrant. In-migrant – A person, who crosses the boundaries of a village/town for the purpose of residence at the place of enumeration, is an in-migrant. Out-Migrant – If a person moves out from the place of enumeration (village/town) to another politically defined area (village/town) for usual residence, she or he is termed as an out-migrant. Intra-District Migrant – When a person moves out from his place of usual residence or birth to another politically defined area (village/town), which is within the district of enumeration, she/he is termed as an intra-district migrant.
Inter-District Migrant – A person who in the course of migration crosses the boundary of the district of enumeration but remains within the state of enumeration, is termed as an inter-district migrant. Intra-State Migrant – Migration within the state. Intra-district and inter-district migrants both constitute the intra-state migrants. Inter-State Migrant – Migrants from across the state/union territories within the country are known as inter-state migrants. Inter-Country Migrant- Migrants from across one country to another country is defined as inter-country migrants.
For the Census of India 2001 purposes, there are two types of migration namely 1) migrants by place of birth and 2) migrants by place of last residence.
Migrants by place of birth
For every person there can be one and only one place of birth. A person is considered as migrant by place of birth if the place in which she/he is enumerated during the Census other than her/his place of birth. The information/data of the place of birth will be collected in three categories as – i) Country ii) State and iii) District.
The Census of India 2001 collects the information/data of birth place for all the person irrespective of their ages except a temporary visit to their relatives, pilgrimage, tour, etc.
To be continued….
Source: The Sangai Express